A Snapshot of what Wivenhoe was like in 1914
The following transcription is taken from Kelly’s Essex Post Office Directory at that time.
Posted by Peter Hill
WIVENHOE (or Wyvenhoe) is a parish, on a gentle declivity of the Colne, 4 miles south-east from Colchester and 57 ¼ from London, with a station on the Tendring Hundred branch of the Great Eastern railway, from which a line extends to Brightlingsea, 5 miles distant, and another to Clacton-on-Sea, 12 miles distant, and to Walton-on-the-Naze, 15 miles distant. Wivenhoe is in the North Eastern division of the county, Colchester division of Lexden hundred, Lexden and Winstree petty sessional division and union, Colchester, Clacton and Harwich joint county court district and in the rural deanery and archdeaconry of Colchester and Chelmsford diocese. Wivenhoe also forms, with Brightlingsea and Rowhedge, a member of the Cinque Port of Sandwich of Kent.
There is a good quay and the population is largely engaged in shipbuilding. The town is lighted with gas by a company, and supplied with water from works the property of the Urban District Council; the water is obtained from an artesian well, and a water tower, with a capacity of 50,000 gallons, was erected in 1901.
The parish is governed by an Urban District Council of nine members, formed in 1898, under the provisions of the “Local Government Act, 1894” (56 and 57 Vict. Ch. 73).
The church of St. Mary the Virgin is a building of stone, consisting of chancel with south aisle, nave of four bays, aisles, north and south porches and an embattled western tower with clock and 6 bells (recast in 1905 at a cost of £276), and was restored in the year 1860 at an expenditure of about £3,000: in the church are brasses in good preservation to Sir Thomas Westeley, priest, chaplain to the Countess of Oxford, ob. 5 Feb. 1535, with effigy, vested, and bearing a chalice and wafer; another of Flemish work to William, 2nd Viscount Beaumont and titular Baron Bardolf, with effigy in armour, and triple and super-canopy and a marginal inscription, ob. 1507; the third is to Elizabeth (Scroope), second wife of John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford, and widow of William Beaumont, ob.1537, and exhibits her effigy with coronet and heraldic mantle, triple and super-canopy and marginal inscription, both much mutilated: in the vestry is a chest of Flemish workmanship, ……… embossed and studded with nails: this church suffered considerable damage by the shock of an earthquake 22 April, 1884. The register of baptisms dates from 1566; burials and marriages 1560. The living is a rectory, net yearly value £250, with 60 acres of glebe and residence, in the gift of Mrs. Egerton-Green, and held since 1890 by the Rev. John Robert Sinclair Carolin M.A, of Trinity College, Dublin.
The Congregational chapel, erected in 1846 by Mr. Thomas Sanford, at a cost of £2,400, is endowed with a sum of £500, left by the late Miss Mary Ann Sanford, and has Sunday schools, erected in 1874 by Mr. John Sanford. There is also a Wesleyan chapel, built in 1901, and a large Foresters’ Hall, built in 1904. The cemetery, about half a mile from the church, comprises 5 acres, and is under the control of the Urban Council. Wivenhoe Reading Club is managed by a committee of 6 seamen and 6 landsmen and is open from 9.30 a.m. to 10 p.m.; Sundays, 2 till 5 p.m. A fair used to be held on the 4th of September yearly. Ship and yacht building is carried on here and a new graving dock, 205 feet long, was constructed in 1888. A sum of £5,000 was left by the late Miss Mary Ann Sanford, for building and endowing six almshouses for six widows or spinsters of 60 years old and upwards resident in the parish, preference being given to widows of seamen; each inmate receives 6s. per week. A further endowment of £500 was made by Mrs. Ke.….. Hines, sister of the foundress, for the repair of the almshouses. The charities for distribution amount to above £21 yearly.
Wyvenhoe Park, the property and residence of Charles Edmund Gooch esq. J.P. is about a mile and a half from the village; the mansion, a modern building, received considerable damage by the shock of earthquake mentioned above; the park is undulating, well timbered, stocked with deer and contains about 180 acres.
At the Domesday Survey the manor of Wivenhoe was held by Robert Gernon as part of his barony of Stansted Mountfitchet; from 1300 to 1400 it was held by the Sutton family, and in the 15th and 16th centuries held by that of De Vere, Earls of Oxford, and was sold in 1657 by Aubrey, 19th earl K.G. to Nicholas Corsellis, whose family was long seated at Wivenhoe Hall, a fine old mansion with pleasant grounds of about 200 acres, on the north-west side of the village, and at present the property and residence of Alexander K.Barlow esq. George F. Beaumont esq. of Coggeshall, is lord of the manor.
The principal owners of the land are C.E.Gooch esq. and A.K. Barlow esq. The soil is light; subsoil, gravel. The chief crops are wheat, oats, barley and roots. The area of the civil parish and Urban District is 1,562 acres of land, 2 of inland and 7 of tidal water and 33 of foreshore; assessable value, £5,925; the population in 1911 was 2,375 in the civil and 2,251 in the ecclesiastical parish.
Post, M. O., T. & Telephone Call Office.—Thomas William Goodwin, sub-postmaster. Letters arrive from Colchester at 4.10 & 9.45 a.m. & 3.20 (for callers only) & 6.45 p.m.; dispatched at 10.10 a.m. & 2.50 & 8.35 p.m.; sundays at 8.35 p.m.
Town Sub-Post Office, Wivenhoe Cross.—Mrs. Elizabeth Wade, sub-postmistress. The Letter Box is cleared for dispatch at 8.30 a.m. & 12.15 & 8.40 p.m.; Sundays 8.40 p.m.; there is no delivery from this office.
Wall Box, Station, cleared at 9.55 a.m. & 2.40 & 7.45 p.m.; Sundays, 7.30 p.m.
URBAN DISTRICT COUNCIL
Meets at the Council offices, High street, on 2nd monday in every month, at 5.30.
Chairman, Edward Herbert Squire.
Vice-Chairman, John Worsp.
Retire in April, 1915.
Alexander Kay Barlow John Augustus Fale Joseph Trayler
Retire in April, 1916.
William Husk Arthur Vincent John Worsp
Retire in April, 1917.
Arthur Henry Seymour Edward Herbert Squire Herbert Leslie Wright
Clerk, Chas. Wm. Denton, 3 East Stockwell st. Colchstr
Treasurer, Capt. Nevill Arthur Charles de Hirzel Tufnell J.P. The Old Bank, Colchester
Medical Officer of Health, Grahame Travers Kevern M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond, Rowhedge
Surveyor & Sanitary Inspector, Robert Hugh Barrell
Rate Collector, Thomas William Goodwin, Post office
Waterworks Engineer & Water Rent Collector, Robert Macfarlane
Cemetery, T.W. Goodwin, clerk to the burial board
County Police, Edgar Richard Pryke, Bellevue road, sergeant in charge
Foresters’ Hall, Arthur E. Cuthberts, sec
Shipwrecked Fisherman & Mariners’ Royal Benevolent Society; Hon. Representative, Stacey Wood
Medical Officer & Public Vaccinator, 2nd District, Lexden & Winstree Union & Medical Officer, Part of No. 5 (Elmstead) District, Tendring Union, Edward Herbert Squire M.R.C.S.Eng
Deputy Registrar of Births, Deaths & Marriages, Peldon sub-district, Harold Goodwin
Town Crier, S. William Currell
Public Elementary School (boys, girls & infants), for 276 boys, 232 girls & 198 infants; average attendance, 146 boys, 133 girls & 102 infants; William Thomas Wadley, master; Mrs. Wright, mistress; Miss Emily Kent, infants’ mistress
Railway station, Edwin Douse, station master
Carriers to Colchester.—William B. Cole, to ‘Swan’, daily, thurs. excepted; Robert Wyatt, to ‘Castle,’ daily, thurs. excepted.
PRIVATE RESIDENTS COMMERCIAL (contd)
Barlow Alexander K. Wivenhoe Hall Goodwin Harold, deputy registrar of
Blyth James, Red ho. Wivenhoe Cross births, marriages and deaths, Peldon
Bonner Mrs. The Firs, High street sub-dist. Lexden & Winstree union
Borrow John, Hillside Goodwin Thomas William, stationer,
Carolin Rev. John Robert Sinclair M.A. assistant overseer & collector of rates
Rectory to the Urban District Council, Post
Chapman Edgar, Fern Lea office
Colmore Lt. Reginald B.E., R.N. Green Emma (Mrs.), fishmonger
The Cottage, Wivenhoe Cross Hadley Jas Leonrd, boot ma. Queen’s rd
Davey Arthur George, The Hollies Hadley Joseph, master mariner, Bellevue
Ellis Charles Albert, The Haven road
Gooch Chas.Edmd. J.P. Wyvenhoe pk Ham Dick, builder
Hawkins John Bawtree J.P. Ballast quay Harvey Abraham, master mariner
Head William, Oakleigh, High street Heath James, farmer, Cross farm & oyster
Jennings Miss, Gurney vale merchant, Quayside
Madder Mrs. Ivy cottage, High street Hillyard George, beer retailer
Perry John, Fernbank Husk William & Charles, boat builders,
Rice Harry Oliver, The Nook Quay house
Seymour Arthur Henry, Alexander ho Husk James, boat builder
Squire Edward Herbert, Colne house Jackson Edward, insurance agent
Squire Miss, The Limes James William Harry, black-smith,
Tyler Rev. William Franklin Wivenhoe Cross
(Congregational) Johnson William Henry, farmer
Wadley William J.P. Avenue villas Joliffe Walter, jobmaster
Warren Frederick, Briarleigh Jolliffe Elizh. (Mrs.), beer retailer
Worsp Jn. The Moorings, Bellevue rd Kevern Grahame Travers M.R.C.S. Eng.,
COMMERCIAL L.R.C.P, Lond. physician & surgeon,
Early closing day, Thursday High street
Abbott William, carpenter, Wivenhoe King Brothers, butchers
Cross Knopp Williams, market gardener,
Adams Robert, shopkeeper Wivenhoe Cross
Barclay & Company Limited, bankers Last William, baker
(sub-branch) (open tues. & fri. Madder William ………..akers
11.45 a.m. to 2.45 p.m.) draw on Maling Thomas William, clothier
head office, 54 Lombard street, Mason James, master mariner
London E C Mason Robert James, master mariner
Barr Benjamin Archer, Falcon P.H. Masonic Hall (2477, Colne Valley) (Dick
Barr Blanche (Mrs.), shopkeeper Ham, sec.). meets 2nd tues. from Oct.
Barrell Benjamin B. & Martin, builders, to April. The Avenue
Rectory road Mason Wm. Edward, Grosvenor hotel
Barrell Robt. Hugh, builder, surveyor & Moore James & Son, grocers
sanitary inspector to the Urban Mortlock Chas. William, miller (oil)
District Council, Rectory road Newman Emma (Mrs.), shopkeeper,
Barrett Rosa (Mrs.), confectioner Wivenhoe Cross
Bartlett William & Sons, oyster mers Nicholls Joseph, greengrocer
Beckwith Asa, pork butcher Norfolk George, butcher
Beckwith Hannah (Miss), shopkeeper Nottage Institute (William Wadley,
Bird Annie (Mrs.), shopkeeper hon.sec)
Blyth John George. cattle cake mer Oakley Henry Richard, master mariner,
Bones David, cycle repairer Bellevue road
Brown Edith Mary (Mrs.), grocer Parr’s Bank Limited (branch) (open 11 till
Brown Frederick, beer retailer 1 wed & sat,); draw on head office,
Brown Joseph George, jun. hair drssr Bartholomew la. London E C
Brown Joseph Geo. Rose & Crown P.H. Payne Fred, shopkeeper
Brunning Alice (Mrs.), shopkeeper Porter Roger Geo. insur. agt. Stanley rd
Cemetery (Thomas William Goodwin, Powell Thomas, Station hotel
clerk to the burial board) Proctor Isabel (Miss), ladies’ school,
Chamberlain Philip Edgar, boot ma Trinity house
Chapman Edgar & Daniel, builders Pryke Golden Boxley, farmer, Blossom
Child Harry & Charles, plumbers wood (letters through Elmstead)
Cockrell Leonard Charles, master Pudney Geo. Robt. master mariner
mariner, Bellevue road Rennie Forrestt Shipbuilding, Engineering
Colchester Co-operative Reading & Dry Dock Co. Limited (J.Perry, sec.),
Rooms & Library (branch) ship builders
Colchester & East Essex Co-operative Sainty Charles, Black Buoy P.H.
& Industrial Society Ltd. (branch) Scofield Charles G. painter
Cole Annie E. (Mrs.), draper Scollick Martha (Mrs.), shopkeeper
Cole Harold Jn. music tchr, High st Smith Frank William, plumber
Cole William B. carrier
Corbel Frank, wholesale clothing Squire Edward Herbert M.R.C.S.Eng.,
manufacturer, Wivenhoe Cross L.S.A. physician & surgeon, & medical
Cracknell Ernest James, baker officer, Elmstead district,Tendring
Crickmore Frank, grocer, union & medical officer & public
Wivenhoe Cross vaccinator for 2nd district, Lexden &
Culley William Easter, Horse & Winstree union, Colne house
Groom P.H. Wivenhoe Cross Stebbing George, grocer
Dalton Norman Charles, hair dresser Steward Honor (Miss), confectioner
Dodson Leonard, butcher Taylor Bellman (Miss), teacher of music
Durrell Benjamin, shopkeeper Trayler Joseph, Park hotel
Ellis Albert H. ironmonger, High st Trayler Wm. Chas. master mariner
Emeny Alfred, laundry, Broad lane Urban District Water Works (Robert
Everett William, farmer, Tye farm Macfarlane, engineer & collector of
Fale John, fishmonger, Anchor hill water rent)
Fenner Wm. Yachtsman’s Arms P.H. Wade Elizabeth (Mrs.), confectioner,
Flux Ernest George, confectioner Post office, Wivenhoe Cross
Ford Jn. boot maker, Wivenhoe Cross Walker Eliza (Mrs.), drug stores
Foresters’ Hall (Arth. E. Cuthberts, sec) Warner Alfred Wm. coal merchant
Franks Edwin (Mrs.), baker Warren Minnie (Mrs.), wardrobe dealer,
French George William, Flag P.H. Wivenhoe Cross
Wivenhoe Cross Watsham Frederick, farmer, Vine frm
Garnham Jas. Herbt. farmr, Lodge fm Wilby Henry Charles, assistant insurance
Garrard Emily (Mrs.), shopkeeper supt. High street
Garrett Arthur, draper Wivenhoe Gas Co. (A.W. Green, Sudbury,
Glozier George, Greyhound P.H. sec)
Glozier Tilford Henry, hair dresser Wivenhoe Reading Club (J.B. Hawkins,
Goodwin John Arthur Fredk. builder pres.; Arthur Goodwin, sec)
Wood Stacey, grocer
Wyatt Robt. carrier, Wivenhoe Cross
Wyatt Wm. coal dlr. Wivenhoe Cross
Wyncoll Thos. Edwd. frmr. Park frm